China · Cybersecurity · cyberwar · Information operations · Information Warfare · Iran · North Korea · Russia

ISPI Report: Confronting an “Axis of Cyber”?

25 October 2018

The new US National Cyber Strategy points to Russia, China, North Korea and Iran as the main international actors responsible for launching malicious cyber and information warfare campaigns against Western interests and democratic processes. Washington made clear its intention of scaling the response to the magnitude of the threat, while actively pursuing the goal of an open, secure and global Internet.

The first Report of the ISPI Centre on Cybersecurity focuses on the behaviour of these “usual suspects”, investigates the security risks implicit in the mounting international confrontation in cyberspace, and highlights the current irreconcilable political cleavage between these four countries and the West in their respective approaches “in and around” cyberspace.

Download the Report (PDF)

Table of Contents

Introduction, Giampiero Massolo

1. An “Axis” Reloaded?, Fabio Rugge

2. Russia: Information Security Meets Cyber Security, Tim Maurer, Garrett Hinck

3. China and Cyber: The Growing Role of Information in Chinese Thinking, Dean Cheng

4. North Korean Cyber Threats, Daniel A. Pinkston

5. Iran’s Cybered Warfare Meets Western Cyber-Insecurity, Lior Tabansky

6. The Balance of Power in Cyberspace, Umberto Gori

7. Defining Rules of Behaviour for Force and Coercion in Cyberspace, James A. Lewis

* Published by the ISPI Centre on Cybersecurity, in cooperation with Leonardo, with the support of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. The opinions expressed are those of the authors. They do not reflect the opinions or views of ISPI or the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.


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