This morning, my favorite Russian Foreign Ministry official posted a link to the following story.
The first real problem is when the concept of democracy is introduced right after Stalin pushed secret election of middle and senior officials into the system, absolutely negating what democracy is supposed to accomplish.
From February 4, 1989, in the New York Times, but this article excuses all that.
Bottom line, this is yet another attempt by Russia to revise history, to make Stalin more tolerable, and basically to lie to Russians about how great a guy he was… At least 20 million Russians later, yeah, he’s a fine fellow – not.
It is a translation from Chrome, if you have a better translation, please send it.
Stalinist repression of the 1930s. Are you sure that they are Stalin’s?
The question of the repressions of the thirties of the last century is of fundamental importance not only for understanding the history of Russian socialism and its essence as a social system, but also for assessing the role of Stalin in the history of Russia. This issue plays a key role in accusing not only Stalinism, but, in fact, all Soviet power.
To date, the evaluation of “Stalin’s terror” has become in our country a touchstone, a password that is foreign to the past and future of Russia. Do you condemn? Determined and irrevocable? – Democrat and the general man! Are there any doubts? “A Stalinist!”
Let’s try to understand the simple question: did Stalin organize “great terror”? Perhaps, there are other causes of terror, about which the common people – liberals prefer to remain silent?
So. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks tried to create an ideological elite of a new type, but these attempts were stalled from the very beginning. Mainly because the new “people’s” elite believed that their revolutionary struggle fully deserved the right to enjoy the benefits that the “elite” had against the people’s right only by birth. In the noble mansions, a new nomenklatura quickly became familiar, and even the old servants remained in place, they only began to call them servants. This phenomenon was very broad and was called “kombarstvo.”
Even the right measures proved ineffective, Thanks to the massive sabotage of the new elite. To correct measures I am inclined to attribute the introduction of the so-called “partmaximum” – the prohibition to members of the party to receive a salary more than the salary of a highly skilled worker.
That is, the non-partisan director of the plant could receive a salary of 2000 rubles, and the communist director only 500 rubles, and not a penny more. Thus, Lenin sought to avoid the influx into the party of careerists, who use it as a springboard in order to quickly break through into grain places. However, this measure was half-hearted without the simultaneous destruction of the system of privileges applied to any post.
By the way, VI. Lenin strongly opposed the foolhardy growth of the membership of the party, and then later engaged in the CPSU, beginning with Khrushchev. In his work “Infantile Disorder of Leftism in Communism,” he wrote: ” We are afraid of the excessive expansion of the party, because careerists and rascals inevitably seek to adhere to the government party, which deserve only to be shot .”
Moreover, in the conditions of the post-war shortage of consumer goods, material goods were not so much bought as they were distributed. Every power fulfills the function of distribution, and if so, then the one who distributes it uses the distributed one. Particularly clingy careerists and rascals. Therefore, on the turn was the upgrade of the upper floors of the party.
Stalin declared this in his cautious manner at the XVII Congress of the CPSU (b) (March 1934). In his Report, the Secretary General characterized a certain type of workers who interfere with the party and the country: “… These are people with well-known merits in the past, That party and Soviet laws were written not for them, but for fools. These are the very people who do not consider it their duty to execute the decisions of the party organs … What do they expect, violating party and Soviet laws? They hope that the Soviet authorities will not dare to touch them because of their old merits. These conceited nobles think that they are irreplaceable and that they can violate decisions of the governing bodies with impunity … “.
The results of the First Five-Year Plan showed that the old Bolshevik-Leninists, with all their revolutionary merits, can not cope with the scale of the reconstructed economy. Not burdened with professional skills, poorly educated (Yezhov wrote in his autobiography: education – unfinished primary), washed in the blood of the Civil War, they could not “saddle” complex production realities.
Formally, the real power on the ground belonged to the Soviets, since the party did not have any legal authority. But the Party bosses were elected chairmen of the Soviets, and, in fact, appointed themselves to these posts, since the elections were held on an uncontested basis, that is to say, they were not elections. And then Stalin undertook a very risky maneuver – je proposed to establish in the country a real, rather than nominal, Soviet power, that is, hold secret general elections in party organizations and councils of all levels on an alternative basis. Stalin tried to get rid of party regional barons, which is called, in an amicable way, through elections, and really alternative ones.
Considering Soviet practice, this sounds rather unusual, nevertheless, this is so. He counted, That the majority of this public without support from above can not overcome the national filter. Moreover, according to the new constitution, it was planned to nominate candidates to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR not only from the VKP (b), but also from public organizations and groups of citizens.
What happened next? December 5, 1936 adopted the new Constitution of the USSR, the most democratic constitution of that time in the whole world, even as recognized by the ardent critics of the USSR. For the first time in the history of Russia, secret alternative elections were to take place. With secret ballot. Despite the fact that the party elite tried to put the wheel in the wheel even in the period when the draft constitution was being drafted, Stalin managed to bring the matter to an end.
The regional party elite understood perfectly well – with the help of these new elections to the new Supreme Council, Stalin plans to conduct a peaceful rotation of the entire ruling element. And there were about 250 thousand of them. By the way, the NKVD calculated for such a large number of investigations.
Understand something, they understood, but what to do? I do not want to part with my chairs. And they also understood perfectly well one more thing: during the previous period, they had done such a thing, especially during the Civil War and collectivization, that the people would gladly choose not only them but would also beat their head off. The hands of many high regional party secretaries were elbow in the blood. During the period of collectivization in the regions there was complete arbitrariness. In one of the regions Khataevich, this dear man, Declared a virtual civil war in the course of collectivization in its particular region. As a result, Stalin was forced to threaten him, that he would shoot at once, if he did not stop mocking people. Do you think that comrades Eikhe, Postyshev, Kosior and Khrushchev were better, were less “sweet”? Of course, the people remembered all this in 1937 and after the election these bloodsuckers would have gone to the forest.
Stalin really planned such an operation for peaceful rotation, he openly told the American correspondent in March 1936, Howard Roy. He said that these elections will be a good whip in the hands of the people to change the leading cadres, right and said – “whip”. Are yesterday’s “gods” of their counties suffering a whip?
The Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) Held in June 1936 directly aimed the party leadership for new times. When discussing the draft of the new constitution, A. Zhdanov in his extensive report spoke quite unequivocally: “The new electoral system … will give a powerful impetus to improving the work of Soviet bodies, the elimination of bureaucratic bodies, the elimination of bureaucratic shortcomings and distortions in the work of our Soviet organizations. And these shortcomings, as you know, are very significant. Our party organs must be ready for an election … “. And further, he said that these elections would be a serious, serious check of Soviet workers, because the secret ballot gives ample opportunities to remove undesirable and dissatisfied candidates, that party bodies are obliged to distinguish such criticism FROM HOSTILE ACTIVITY that non-partisan candidates should be treated with all support And attention, because them, Delicately speaking, several times more than the party members.
In Zhdanov’s report, the terms “inner-party democracy,” “democratic centralism,” and “democratic elections” were voiced publicly. And the demands were put forward: to forbid the “nomination” of candidates without elections, to prohibit party meetings from voting “by list”, to provide “unlimited right to withdraw candidates nominated by party members and unlimited right to criticize these nominees”. The last phrase relied entirely on the election of purely party bodies, where a long time ago there was not a shadow of democracy. But, as we see, general elections to the Soviet and party bodies are not forgotten.
Stalin and his people demand democracy! And if this is not democracy, then explain to me what to think of democracy then ?!
And how did Zhdanov’s report react to the Party’s grandees who gathered at the plenum-the first secretaries of the regional committees, territorial com- mittees, and the central committees of the national Communist parties? And they miss it all! Because such innovations are not at all to the taste of the very same “old Leninist guard”, which has not yet been destroyed by Stalin, but just sits on the plenum in all its glory and splendor. Because the vaunted “Leninist Guard” is a conglomeration of small satraps. They are accustomed to live in their patrimony barons, single-handedly dispose of life and death of people.
The debate on Zhdanov’s report was virtually disrupted.
Despite Stalin’s direct calls for serious and detailed discussion of the reforms, the old guard with paranoid obstinacy turns to more pleasant and understandable topics: terror, terror, terror! What the hell, reform? There are more pressing tasks: to beat the hiding enemy, burn, catch, reveal!
The people’s commissars, the first secretaries-all talk about the same: how they gambly and scrupulously reveal the enemies of the people, how they intend to raise this campaign to the cosmic heights … Stalin is losing patience. When another speaker appears on the rostrum, without waiting for him to open his mouth, he throws ironically: “Have all the enemies been identified or have they still remained?” The speaker, the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee Kabakov, (another future “innocent victim of Stalin’s terror”) misses the irony by his ears and habitually cracks that the selective activity of the masses, so that you know, is “used all too often by hostile elements for counterrevolutionary work “.
They are incurable !!! They simply can not do otherwise! They do not need any reforms, no secret ballot, Nor a few candidates in the ballot.
They are defending the old system with foam at the mouth, where there is no democracy, but there is only “Boyar’s will” … On the platform – Molotov. He says sensible, sensible things: you need to identify real enemies and pests, and not muddy all, without exception, “captains of production.” It is necessary to learn, at last, to distinguish the guilty from the innocent. It is necessary to reform the bloated bureaucratic apparatus, it is necessary to evaluate people by their business quality and not to put in the line the past mistakes. And party boyars – all about the same: to search and catch enemies with all the ardor! Eradicate deeper, plant more! For a change, they enthusiastically and loudly start drowning each other: Kudryavtsev – Postysheva, Andreev – Sheboldaeva, Polonsky – Shvernik, Khrushchev – Yakovlev.
Molotov, unable to stand it, says openly:
– In a number of cases, listening to speaking speakers, it was possible to come to the conclusion that our resolutions and our reports passed by the ears of the speakers …
To the bull’s-eye! Not only have passed – whizzed … The majority of those gathered in the hall do not know how to work or reform. But they are perfectly able to catch and identify enemies, they adore this occupation and lives without it do not think.
It does not seem strange to you that this “executioner” Stalin, directly imposed democracy, and his future “innocent victims” from this democracy ran like a devil from incense. Yes, and demanded repression, and more.
In short, it was not the “tyrant Stalin”, namely the “cosmopolitan Leninist party guards” that ruled the ball at the June 1936 plenum, buried all attempts at a democratic thaw. Did not give Stalin the opportunity to get rid of them, as they say, GOOD, through the elections.
The authority of Stalin was so great that the party barons did not risk openly protesting, and in 1936 the USSR Constitution was adopted, also called Stalin, which provided for a transition to real Soviet democracy.
However, the party nomenclature took to the reins and conducted a massive attack on the leader in order to persuade him to postpone the holding of free elections until the end of the struggle with the counter-revolutionary element.
The regional party bosses, members of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.), Began to stir up passions, referring to the recently discovered conspiracies of the Trotskyites and the military: they only need to give such an opportunity as former white officers and noblemen, hiding kulak shortages, clergymen and Trotskyists-pests rush into politics .
They demanded not just to curtail any plans for democratization, But also to strengthen emergency measures, and even to introduce special quotas for mass repression across the regions – they say, to finish off those Trotskyists who have escaped punishment. The party nomenclature demanded the authority to repress these enemies, and it dislodged these powers. And then the little party barons who made up the majority in the Central Committee, frightened for their leading positions, begin repression, first of all, against those honest Communists who could compete in future elections by secret ballot.
The nature of the repressions against honest Communists was such that the composition of some district and regional committees changed over the year two or three times. Communists at Party conferences refused to join the city and regional committees. Understood that after a while you can be in the camp. And this is at best …
For 1937 about 100 thousand people were excluded from the party (in the first half of the year 24 thousand and in the second half – 76 thousand). About 65,000 appeals have gathered in the district committees and regional committees, which no one had ever considered, since the party was engaged in a process of denunciation and expulsion.
At the January 1938 plenum of the Central Committee, Malenkov, who reported on this issue, said that in some areas the Party Control Commission recovered from 50 to 75 percent of the excluded and convicted.
Moreover, to Stalin and his Politburo at the June 1937 Plenum of the Central Committee, the nomenclature, mainly from the first secretaries, in fact put Stalin ultimatum: either he approves the lists submitted to the “bottom” subject to repression, or he himself will be removed.
The party nomenclature at this plenum demanded powers for repression. And Stalin was forced to give them permission, but he acted very cunningly – he gave them a short time, five days. Of these five days, one day is Sunday. He expected that they would not settle in such a short time.
But it turns out that these bastards already had lists. They simply took the lists of former kulaks who had served their time, and sometimes did not sit, former white officers and nobles, Trotskyites, wretches, priests and ordinary citizens, classified as classically alien elements. Literally on the second day, telegrams from the seats were sent: the first were comrades Khrushchev and Eikhe.
Then his friend Robert Eiche, who was shot in fairness for all his cruelties in 1939, was rehabilitated by Nikita Khrushchev first in 1954.
There were no more ballot papers with several candidates at the Plenum: the reform plans were reduced solely to the fact that, That the candidates for the elections will be put forward by “jointly” Communists with non-Party people. And in every newsletter there will be one candidate for each – for the sake of rebuffing intrigues. And in addition – another verbose verbiage about the need to identify the masses of enemies who have settled.
Stalin also had one more mistake. He sincerely believed that N.I. Yezhov is a man of his team. After all, they worked together for so many years in the Central Committee, shoulder to shoulder. Yezhov had long been the best friend of Evdokimov, an ardent Trotskyite. For the years 1937-38. Triplets in the Rostov region, where Evdokimov was the first secretary of the regional committee, 12,445 people were shot, over 90,000 were repressed. It was these figures that were carved by the Memorial Society in one of the Rostov parks on the monument to the victims of … Stalin’s (?!) repression. Subsequently, when Evdokimova was shot, That in the Rostov region lay without traffic and has not been considered more than 18.5 thousand appeals. And how many were not written! The best party cadres, experienced business executives, intellectuals were destroyed … And what, he was such one?
Interesting in this respect are the memoirs of the famous poet Nikolai Zabolotsky: ” In my head, there was a strange confidence that we are in the hands of the fascists, who under our noses have found a way to destroy Soviet people, acting in the very center of the Soviet punitive system. This guess I told one old party member sitting with me, and with horror in his eyes he confessed to me that he himself thinks the same, but does not dare to tell anyone about it. Indeed, the more we could explain all the horrors that were happening to us … “.
But let us return to Nikolai Yezhov. By 1937 the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs G. Yagoda had staffed the NKVD with scum, obvious traitors and those who replaced their work with hack-work. N. Yezhov, who replaced him, went to the hack-laborers on occasion and cleared the country of the “fifth column” to distinguish himself, closed his eyes to the fact that the NKVD investigators had brought hundreds of thousands of mischievous cases to people, mostly completely innocent.
(Say, the generals A. Gorbatov and K. Rokossovsky were put in jail.) And the flywheel of the “Great Terror” with its notorious out-of-court troikas and limits to the highest measure was spinning. Fortunately, this flywheel quickly ground those who initiated the process itself, and Stalin’s merit was that he made the most of the opportunities to clean up the highest echelons of power of all kinds of shit.
It was not Stalin, but Robert Indrikovich Eikhe proposed the creation of extrajudicial killings, Famous “troika”, the type of “Stolypin”, consisting of the first secretary, local prosecutor and head of the NKVD (city, region, province, republic). Stalin was against it. But the Politburo voiced. Well, but that a year later, it was this trio that leaned against Comrade Eikha’s wall, no, in my deep conviction, nothing but sad justice.
The party elite is directly involved in the slaughter!
And let’s take a closer look at him himself, to the repressed regional party baron. And, in fact, what were they like from themselves, both in business, and in moral, and in purely human terms? What they cost as people and specialists? ONLY NOS FIRST CLICK, INSIDE RECOMMEND. In short, party members, military men, scientists, writers, composers, musicians and all others, Up to the noble rabbit breeders and the Komsomol members were eagerly chewing each other. Who sincerely believed that he was obliged to exterminate the enemies, who took the scores. So do not talk about whether the NKVD beat a noble victim or not with a noble face.
The Party’s regional nomenclature has achieved the most important thing: after all, in conditions of mass terror free elections are impossible. Stalin was never able to hold them. End of a short thaw. Stalin never sold his bloc of reforms. True, at that plenum he said remarkable words: “Party organizations will be freed from economic work, although this will not happen immediately. It takes time. ”
But, again we will return to Yezhov. Nikolai Ivanovich was a new person in the “bodies”, he started well, but quickly fell under the influence of his deputy: Frinovsky (former head of the Special Division of the First Cavalry Army). He taught the new Commissar the basics of chekist work directly “in production.” The basics were very simple: the more enemies of the people we catch, the better. You can beat and need, and beat and drink – even more fun.
Drunk with vodka, blood and impunity, the People’s Commissar soon “floated” openly.
His new views, he did not particularly hide from others. ” Why should you be afraid?” – he said at one of the banquets. “After all, all power is in our hands.” Whom we want – we’ll execute, whom we want – we pardon: – After all, we are everything. It is necessary that everyone, starting from the secretary of the regional committee, go under you . ”
If the secretary of the regional committee had to go to the head of the regional administration of the NKVD, who, it is asked, Had to walk under Yezhov? With such personnel and such views, the NKVD became deadly to both the authorities and the country.
It’s hard to say when the Kremlin began to realize what is happening. Probably somewhere in the first half of 1938. But to realize – realized, and how to curb the monster? It is clear that the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs was by that time mortally dangerous, and it had to be “normalized”. But how? What, raise the troops, bring all the Chekists into the courtyards of the offices and put a line to the wall? Otherwise, in any way, for, hardly having felt danger, they simply would dare power.
After all, the same NKVD was in charge of guarding the Kremlin, so the members of the Politburo would die without even having time to understand anything. After that, a dozen would be planted in their place with the “blood of the washed”, and the whole country would turn into one large West Siberian region with Robert Eich at the head. The people of the USSR would perceive the arrival of Hitler’s troops as happiness.
The only way out was to put your man in the NKVD. And a man of this level of loyalty, courage and professionalism, so that he could, on the one hand, cope with the management of the NKVD, and on the other – stop the monster. Hardly had Stalin had a large selection of such people. Well, at least one was found. But what – Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich.
Elena Prudnikova is a journalist and writer who has devoted several books to researching the activities of L.P. Beria and I.V. Stalin, in one of the TV programs, said that Lenin, Stalin, Beria were three titans, whom the Lord God in his great mercy sent to Russia, because, apparently, he still needed Russia. I hope that she is Russia and in our time will soon be needed.
At all, The term “Stalinist repression” is speculative, because it was not Stalin who initiated them. The unanimous opinion of one part of the liberal perestroika and current ideologists that Stalin, thus, strengthened his power, physically eliminating opponents, is easily explainable. These wits simply judge others by themselves: they, having such an opportunity, will readily eat everyone who sees danger.
Knowingly Alexander Sytin – political scientist, Doctor of Historical Sciences, prominent neo-liberal, in one of the recent TV programs by V. Soloviev, argued that in Russia it is necessary to create a DICTATURE OF TEN PERCENT OF LIBERAL MINORITY, which will then accurately lead the peoples of Russia into a bright capitalist tomorrow. He modestly kept silent about the price of this approach.
Another part of these gentlemen believes that supposedly Stalin, Who wanted to finally become the Lord God on Soviet soil, decided to crack down on all those who doubted his genius. And, above all, with those who, together with Lenin, created the October Revolution. Like, that’s why almost all the “Leninist guards”, and at the same time the top of the Red Army, who were accused of having never existed a plot against Stalin, went innocently under the ax. However, with more careful study of these events, there are many questions that call into question this version. In principle, the doubts of thinking historians arose long ago. And doubts were sown not by some Stalinist historians, but by eyewitnesses who themselves did not like “the father of all Soviet peoples.”
For example, in the West in due time the memoirs of the former Soviet scout Alexander Orlov (Leiba Feldbina) were published, Who fled from our country in the late 30’s, taking a huge amount of government dollars. Orlov, who was well aware of the “inner kitchen” of his NKVD native, wrote frankly that a coup was being prepared in the Soviet Union. Among the conspirators, he said, were both representatives of the leadership of the NKVD and the Red Army in the person of Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky and the commander of the Kiev military district, Jonah Yakir.
The conspiracy became known to Stalin, who took a very tough response … And in the 80 years in the US were declassified archives of the main enemy of Joseph Vissarionovich – Lev Trotsky. From these documents it became clear that Trotsky had an extensive underground network in the Soviet Union. While living abroad, Lev Davidovich demanded from his people resolute actions to destabilize the situation in the Soviet Union, Up to the organization of mass terrorist actions.
In the 1990s, our archives already opened access to the protocols of interrogation of repressed anti-Stalinist opposition leaders. According to the nature of these materials, according to the abundance of facts and evidence set forth in them, today’s independent experts made three important conclusions.
First, the general picture of a broad conspiracy against Stalin looks very, very convincing. Such evidence could not have been somehow directed or faked to please the “father of the people”. Especially in the part where it was about the military plans of the conspirators. Here is what the well-known historian-publicist Sergei Kremlev said about this: “Take and read Tukhachevsky’s testimony given to them after his arrest. The confessions themselves in the conspiracy are accompanied by a profound analysis of the military-political situation in the USSR in the mid-1930s, With detailed calculations on the overall situation in the country, with our mobilization, economic and other opportunities.
The question is, could such evidence have been invented by an ordinary NKVD investigator who was leading a marshal’s case and who allegedly set himself the goal of falsifying Tukhachevsky’s testimony ?! No, these testimonies, voluntarily, could only give a knowledgeable person no less than the level of the Deputy People’s Commissar of Defense, which was Tukhachevsky. ”
Secondly, the very manner of hand-written confessions of conspirators, their handwriting talked about what their people wrote themselves, in fact, voluntarily, without physical interference from the investigators. This destroyed the myth that the testimony was brutally beaten out by the power of the “Stalin’s executioners”, although this was true.
Thirdly, Western Sovietologists and emigre public, not having access to archival materials, Their judgments about the scope of repression were forced to actually suck out of their fingers. At best, they were satisfied with interviews with dissidents, who either went through the imprisonment themselves in the past, or brought the stories of those who passed through the Gulag.
The upper limit in assessing the number of “victims of communism” was asked by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, in 1976 in an interview with the Spanish television about 110 million victims. The ceiling of 110 million voiced by Solzhenitsyn was systematically reduced to 12.5 million people of the Memorial Society. However, following the results of 10 years of work, Memorial managed to collect data on only 2.6 million victims of repression, which is close to the figure of 4 million people, which was announced by Zemskov almost 20 years ago.
After the opening of the archives, the West did not believe that the number of repressed people is much less than the same R. Conquest or A. Solzhenitsyn. In total, according to archival data, for the period from 1921 to 1953 3 777 380 were convicted, of which 642 980 people were sentenced to death. Subsequently, this figure was increased to 4 060 306 people at the expense of 282 926 shot under subpar. 2 and 3 of Art. 59 (especially dangerous banditry) and art. 193 – 24 (military espionage). Included here were the blood-washed Basmachi, Banderovtsy, the Baltic “forest brothers” and other particularly dangerous, bloody bandits, spies and saboteurs. They have more blood on them than water in the Volga. And they are also considered “the innocent victims of Stalin’s repression.” And in all this accuse Stalin. (I recall that until 1928, Stalin was not the sole ruler of the USSR, but he received the full power from the Party, the army and the NKVD only from the end of 1938).
The figures given at first glance are terrible. But only at first. Let’s compare. June 28, 1990 in the central newspapers appeared an interview with the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, where he said: “We are literally overwhelmed by a wave of criminality. Over the past 30 years, 38 MILLION OUR MEMBERS have been under trial, investigation, prisons and colonies. This is a terrible number! Every ninth … “.
So. In the USSR in 1990 came a crowd of Western journalists. The goal is to familiarize yourself with the open archives. They studied the archives of the NKVD – they did not believe it. Required the archives of the People’s Commissariat of Railways. They got to know – it turned out four million. They did not believe it. Requested the archives of the People’s Commissariat of Food. We got to know – 4 million repressed were obtained. We got acquainted with the clothing content of the camps. It turned out – 4 million repressed. You think that after this, in the Western media, packs of articles were sent with the correct numbers of repression. Yes, nothing like that. There they continue to write and talk about tens of millions of victims of repression.
I want to note that the analysis of the process called “mass repression” shows that this phenomenon is extremely multilayered. There are real cases there: about conspiracies and espionage, political processes over hard-stone oppositionists, cases of crimes of the owners of the regions who have been overfulfilled, and the “cops” who sailed from power. But there are also many falsified cases: the reconciliation of accounts in the corridors of power, incitement in the service, communal squabbles, writers’ rivalry, scientific competition, persecution of priests who supported the kulaks during collectivization, squabbles of artists, musicians and composers.
AES AND CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY – THE DEPRIVED OF FOLLOWERS AND THE LACK OF THE DONOTSCHIKOV (four million denunciations were written for 1937-38). And that’s what it was not possible to find out – these are cases, concocted at the direction of the Kremlin. The reverse examples are – when, according to Stalin’s will, someone was taken out from under the shooting, or even released.
It is necessary to understand one more thing. The term “repression” is the term medical (suppression, blocking) and introduced specifically to remove the issue of guilt. Planted in the late 30’s – it means, is innocent, as “repressed”. In addition, the term “repression” was put into circulation to use it initially in order to give an appropriate moral color to the entire Stalin period, without going into details.
The events of the 1930s showed that the main problem for the Soviet government is the party and state “apparatus”, consisting in no small part of unprincipled, illiterate and greedy servants, leading party members-chatterboxes, Attracted to the fat smell of revolutionary robbery. Such a device was extremely inefficient and uncontrollable, that for a totalitarian Soviet state, in which everything depended on the apparatus, it was like death.
It was from then on that Stalin made repressions an important institution of state administration and a deterrent to the “apparatus” in check. Naturally, the apparatus became the main object of these repressions. Moreover, repression has become an important instrument of state construction. Naturally, the apparatus became the main object of these repressions. Moreover, repression has become an important instrument of state construction. Naturally, the apparatus became the main object of these repressions. Moreover, repression has become an important instrument of state construction.
Stalin assumed that from a depraved Soviet apparatus it would be possible to make an efficient bureaucracy only after several stages of repression. The liberals will say that this is the whole of Stalin, that he could not without repression, without the persecution of honest people. But that’s what the American scout John Scott reported to the US State Department about who was being repressed. He found these repressions in the Urals in 1937.
“The director of the construction company, engaged in the construction of new houses for workers of the plant, was not satisfied with his salary, which amounted to a thousand rubles a month, and a two-room apartment. So he built himself a separate house. There were five rooms in the house, and he was able to furnish it well: he hung silk drapes, put up a grand piano, covered the floor with carpets, and so on. Then he began to drive around the city in a car at the time (this happened in early 1937), when the city had few private cars. At the same time, the annual plan for construction work was carried out by his office only by approximately sixty percent. At meetings and in newspapers he was always asked questions about the reasons for such a bad job. He answered that there were no building materials, there was not enough labor, etc.
An investigation began, during which it became clear that the director appropriated state funds and sold construction materials to nearby collective and state farms at speculative prices. It was also discovered that there are people in the construction office who he specially paid to turn off his “affairs”.
An open trial lasting for several days was held, on which all these people were tried. A lot has been said about him in Magnitogorsk. In his accusatory speech at the trial, the prosecutor was not talking about theft or giving bribes, but about wrecking. The director was accused of sabotaging the construction of housing for workers. He was convicted after fully admitting his guilt, and then shot. ”
But the reaction of Soviet people to the purge of 1937 and their position in those days. “Often workers are even happy when they arrest some” important bird, “a leader whom they for some reason disliked. The workers are also very free to express critical thoughts both at meetings and in private conversations. I have heard how they use the strongest expressions, speaking of bureaucracy and the poor performance of individuals or organizations. … in the Soviet Union the situation was somewhat different, That the NKVD in its work to protect the country from the intrigues of foreign agents, spies and the offensive of the old bourgeoisie counted on the support and assistance of the population and basically received them. ”
Well, and: “… During the purging thousands of bureaucrats trembled for their seats. Officials and administrative officials, who had previously come to work at ten o’clock, but left at half past four, and only shrugged their shoulders in response to complaints, difficulties and setbacks, now sat at work from sunrise to sunset, they began to worry about the successes and failures of the They are enterprises, and they actually began to fight for the fulfillment of the plan, saving and for good living conditions for their subordinates, although earlier they did not bother them at all. ”
Interested readers are aware of this question about the continuous moans of the liberals, That in the years of purging the “best people”, the cleverest and most capable, perished. Scott, too, alludes to this all the time, but, nevertheless, as it were, will sum up: “After carrying out the cleansing, the administrative apparatus of the whole plant’s management was almost a hundred percent young Soviet engineers. Practically there were no specialists left among the prisoners and virtually no foreign specialists. Nevertheless, by 1939 most of the units, for example, the Railways Administration and the By-product Coke Plant, began to work better than ever before. ”
In the course of party purges and repressions, all the prominent party barons who drank gold reserves in Russia, bathed with prostitutes in champagne, seized noble and merchant palaces for personal use, all the swooning, pinned-down revolutionaries disappeared like smoke. And this is FAIRLY.
But it is half the battle to clean out the scoundrels from the high offices, it was also necessary to replace them with decent people. Very curious how this problem was solved in the NKVD.
First, at the head of the department was put a man who was alien to the kombarstvo, who had no connections with the capital party top, but checked in the business professional – Lavrenty Beria.
The latter, secondly, ruthlessly cleared the Chekists who had compromised themselves,
and thirdly, carried out a radical reduction of the staff, sending people, apparently not sordid, but not profitable, to retirement or to work in other departments.
And finally, the Komsomol invocation was announced to the NKVD, when instead of honored pensioners or shot rascals, absolutely inexperienced guys came to the bodies. But … the main criterion in their selection was an impeccable reputation. If the characteristics of the place of study, work, residence, Komsomol or party line were at least some hints of their insecurity, a propensity for selfishness, laziness, then no one invited them to work in the NKVD.
So, here is a very important point to pay attention to: the team is formed not on the basis of past merits, professional data of applicants, personal acquaintance and ethnicity, and not even on the basis of desire of applicants, but solely on the basis of their moral and psychological characteristics.
Professionalism is a gainful business, but to punish every swamp, a person should not be completely messed up. Well, yes, clean hands, a cold head and a warm heart are all about the youth of the Beria appeal. The fact is, That it was in the late 1930s that the NKVD became a truly effective special service, not only in the internal purge.
Soviet counterintelligence with a devastating account outplayed during the war German intelligence – and this is the great merit of those very Beria Komsomol members who came to the bodies three years before the outbreak of the war.
Cleaning of 1937-1939. Played a positive role – now no leader has ever felt his impunity, untouchables did not become. Fear did not add the mind to the nomenclature, but, at least, warned her against blatant meanness.
Unfortunately, immediately after the end of the Great Purge, alternative warfare was not allowed by the world war that began in 1939. And again in the agenda the question of democratization was raised by Joseph Vissarionovich in 1952 shortly before his death. But after Stalin’s death, Khrushchev returned the party leadership to the whole country, without answering for anything. And not only.
Almost immediately after Stalin’s death, a network of special distributors and special rations appeared, through which the new elites realized their preferential position. But in addition to the formal privileges, a system of informal privileges quickly emerged. Which is very important.
Once we have touched on the activities of our dear Nikita Sergeyevich, then we will talk about it in more detail. With the light hand or language of Ilya Ehrenburg, the period of Khrushchev’s rule is called the “thaw”. Let’s see, what did Khrushchev do before the thaw, during the “Great Terror”?
There is a February-March plenum of the Central Committee of 1937. It is with him, as it is believed, began a great terror. Here is the speech by Nikita Sergeevich at this plenum: “… It is necessary to destroy these scoundrels. Destroying a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, we are doing the work of millions. Therefore, it is necessary that the hand does not flinch, it is necessary to cross the corpses of enemies for the good of the people . ”
But how Khrushchev acted as the First Secretary of the Moscow City Committee and the Regional Committee of the CPSU (B.)? In the years 1937-1938. Of the 38 top leaders of the CIM, only three survived, of 146 party secretaries – 136 were repressed. Where he found 22,000 kulaks in the Moscow region in 1937, you can not explain to a sober head. In total for 1937-1938 only in Moscow and the Moscow region. They personally were repressed 55 741 people.
But, perhaps, speaking at the 20th Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev was worried that innocent common people were shot? Yes, Khrushchev did not care about the arrests and executions of ordinary people. His entire report at the 20th Congress was devoted to Stalin’s accusations that he planted and shot prominent Bolsheviks and Marshals. Those. Elite. Khrushchev in his report did not even remember the repressed ordinary people. What should he experience for the people, “women still narozhayut, but the cosmopolitan elite lapotnik Khrushchev was oh, what a pity.
What were the motivations for the appearance of an expository report at the Twentieth Party Congress?
First, without trampling in the dirt of his predecessor, hoping for Khrushchev’s recognition of the role of leader after Stalin was unthinkable. No! Stalin, even after his death, remained a competitor for Khrushchev, whom he had to humiliate and destroy by any means. Kicking a dead lion, as it turned out, is a pleasure – it does not give up.
The second motive was Khrushchev’s desire to return the party to the management of the economic activity of the state. All to lead, not for anything, not answering and not obeying anyone.
The third motive and, perhaps, the most important, was the terrible fear of the remnants of the “Lenin Guard” for what he had done. After all, they all had hands, as Khrushchev himself put it, were on the elbow in blood. Khrushchev and such as he, wanted not only to rule the country, but also to have guarantees that they would never be ruffled, that they would not do when they were in leading positions. The 20th Congress of the CPSU gave them such guarantees in the form of indulgences for the release of all sins, both past and future. The whole riddle of Khrushchev and his companions is not worth the eggs eaten either: this is THE SITTING IN THEIR SOULS, THE UNIQUE ANIMAL FEAR AND THE WAIT OF THE POWER.
First, Which strikes the de-Stalinists – a complete disregard for the principles of historicism, which seemingly were all taught in the Soviet school. No historical figure can be judged by the standards of our age. It should be evaluated according to the standards of its era – and nothing else. In law, they say this: “the law does not have retroactive force.” That is, the ban, introduced this year, can not extend to last year’s deeds.
Here, historical assessments are also necessary: one can not judge a person of one epoch by the standards of another epoch (especially since the new epoch he created with his work and genius). For the beginning of the 20th century, horrors in the position of the peasantry were so common that many contemporaries practically did not notice them. The famine did not begin with Stalin, he ended with Stalin. It seemed,
Forever – but the current liberal reforms are dragging us back to that swamp, from which we seem to have already climbed … The principle of historicism requires acknowledging that Stalin had a completely different heat of political struggle than in the subsequent time. It is one thing to maintain the existence of the system (although Gorbachev did not cope with this), and the other is to create a new system on the ruins of a ruined civil war of the country. The energy of resistance in the second case is many times greater than in the first.
It must be understood that many of those shot under Stalin themselves were going to kill him seriously, and for a minute he would have gotten himself shot in the forehead. The struggle for power in the era of Stalin had a completely different sharpness than it is today: it was the era of the revolutionary “praetorian guard” – accustomed to a riot and ready to change emperors as gloves. The rule was claimed by Trotsky, Rykov, Bukharin, Zinoviev, Kamenev and a whole crowd of people accustomed to killing, like cleaning potatoes.
For any terror, not only the ruler, but also his opponents, as well as society as a whole, is responsible to the history. When an outstanding historian L. Gumilev was asked when Gorbachev asked if he did not keep evil at Stalin, when he was in prison, he answered: ” But Stalin did not plant me, but his colleagues in the department ” …
Well, God be with him Khrushchev and the Twentieth Congress. Let’s talk about what the liberal mass media are constantly cracking, let’s talk about Stalin’s guilt.
Stalin liberals are charged with the shooting of about 700 thousand people for 30 years. The logic of the liberals is simple – all victims of Stalinism. All 700 thousand.
Those. At this time there could be no murderers or bandits, No sadists, no corrupters, no scammers, no traitors, no pests, etc. All victims are for political reasons, all are crystal-clear and decent people.
And meanwhile, even the analytical center of the CIA Rand Corporation, basing itself on the data of demography and archival documents, calculated the number of repressed in the Stalin era. This center claims that less than 700,000 people were shot between 1921 and 1953. At the same time, not more than a quarter of cases fall on the share of those sentenced to article on the political article 58. By the way, the same percentage was observed among prisoners of labor camps.
“Do you like it when you destroy your people in the name of a great goal?”, Continue the liberals. I will answer. THE PEOPLE ARE NOT, AND THE BANDITES, THE THROATERS AND THE MORAL FATHERS – YES. But I no longer LIKE, When their own people destroy money for the sake of filling their pockets, under the guise of beautiful liberal-democratic slogans.
Academician Tatyana Zaslavskaya, a big supporter of the reforms that was then part of the administration of President Yeltsin, admitted in a decade and a half that only in the three years of shock therapy in Russia, only middle-aged men had died 8 million (!!!). Yes, Stalin stands on the sidelines and nervously smokes a pipe. Did not finish.
However, your words about Stalin’s non-participation in the massacre of honest people do not convince, the LIBERALS continue. Even if this were to be allowed, then in this case he was simply obliged, firstly, to honestly and openly confess to all the people in the lawlessness committed against innocent people, secondly, to rehabilitate the unjustly affected and, thirdly, Take measures to prevent such lawlessness in the future. None of this was done.
Again a lie. Dear friends. You just do not know the history of the USSR.
As for the first and secondly, the December plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) Of 1938 openly acknowledged the lawlessness committed against honest Communists and non-Party people by adopting a special resolution on this matter, published, incidentally, in all the central newspapers. The Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.), Noting “provocations on the all-Union scale,” demanded: To expose the careerists seeking to excel … on repression. Unmask a skillfully disguised enemy … striving by means of repressive measures to kill our Bolshevik cadres, sowing uncertainty and excessive suspicion in our ranks. ”
Just as openly, the whole country was spoken about harm, Caused by unreasonable repression, at the XVIII Congress of the CPSU (B.) Held in 1939. Immediately after the December plenum of the Central Committee in 1938, thousands of illegally repressed people began returning from prisons, including prominent military leaders. All of them were formally rehabilitated, and to some, Stalin apologized personally.
Well, in occasion of, thirdly, I already said that the apparatus of the NKVD was almost the most affected by repression, and a significant part was brought to justice for abuse of office, for punishing honest people .
What do not the liberals say about? On the rehabilitation of innocent victims.
Immediately after the December Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) in 1938, they began to review
criminal cases and release them from the camps. It was produced:
In 1939 – 330 thousand, in 1940 – 180 thousand, until June 1941, another 65 thousand.
What else do not the liberals say. About how they fought the consequences of great terror.
With the arrival of Beria LP To the post of People’s Commissar of the NKVD in November 1938 from the state security in 1939 was dismissed 7,372 operational staff, or 22.9% of their payroll staff, of which 937 were put behind bars. And since the end of 1938, the country’s leadership has succeeded in bringing to trial more than 63,000 workers of the NKVD, who allowed falsification and created fake, phony counter-revolutionary affairs, out of which eight thousand were intercepted.
I will give just one example from the article by Yu.I. Mukhina: “Minutes No. 17 Meetings of the VKP (b) Commission for Judicial Affairs”. There are more than 60 photographs. I will show in the form of a table a piece of one of them. (Http:
//a7825585.hostink.ru/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=752.) In this article, Mukhin Yu.I. Writes: ” I was told that this kind of documents was never laid out on the Web due to the fact that in the archive they were quickly denied free access. And the document is interesting, and something interesting can be learned from it … “.
There are many curious things. But most importantly, it is clear from the article why the NKVD officers were shot, after the arrival of NKVD People’s Commissar L.P. Beria. Read. The names of those shot in the photos are shaded.
P R O T O C O L No 17
Meetings of the VKP (b) Committee on Court Matters
of February 23, 1940
Presided – t. Kalinin M.I.
Present: tt .: Shklyar MF, Ponkratiev MI, Merkulov VN
1. Listened to
G … Sergei Ivanovich, M … Fyodor Pavlovich decree of the military tribunal of the NKVD troops of the Moscow military district from December 14-15, 1939 sentenced to be shot under art. 193-17 paragraph b of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR for making unjustified arrests of command and Red Army personnel, actively engaged in falsification of investigative cases, Conducted them by provocative methods and created fictitious C / R organizations, as a result of which a number of persons were shot according to the fictitious materials they had created.
Will agree with the use of the execution to G … And M … F.P.
17. They listened to
A. Fedor Afanasyevich, by a decree of the military tribunal of the NKVD troops of the Leningrad Military District from July 19-25, 1939, was sentenced to be shot under art. 193-17 pp. Criminal Code of the RSFSR for being an employee of the NKVD, mass illegal arrests of citizens of railway workers, engaged in falsification of interrogation protocols and created artificial C / R cases, as a result of which more than 230 people were convicted to be shot and to various Terms of imprisonment of more than 100 people, of whom the last 69 have been released at the time.
agree with the use of the execution to A … FA.
Have you read it? Well, and how do you my dearest Fedor Afanasyevich? One (one !!!) investigator-falsifier led to the shooting of 236 people. And what, he was the only one, how many of them were such scoundrels? I cited the figure above. That Stalin himself personally assigned tasks to these Fedor and Sergey to destroy innocent people, what are the conclusions?
Conclusion N1. To judge Stalin’s time only in terms of repression is the same as the fact that the activities of the head physician of the hospital are judged only on the morgue of the hospital – there will always be corpses. If you approach this measure, then every doctor is a bloody ghoul and murderer, that is, Consciously ignore the fact, That the team of doctors has successfully cured and extended the lives of thousands of patients and blamed them only for a small percentage of the dead due to some unavoidable mistakes in diagnoses or deaths during heavy operations.
The authority of Jesus Christ with Stalin is not comparable. But even in the teachings of Jesus, people see only what they want to see. Studying the history of world civilization, one has to observe how the Christian doctrine was based on wars, chauvinism, “Aryan theory”, serfdom, Jewish pogroms. This is not to mention the executions “without shedding blood” – that is, the burning of heretics. And how much blood was spilled during the Crusades and religious wars? So, maybe because of this, to ban the teachings of our Creator? Just as today some of the umyrki propose to ban communist ideology.
If we look at the mortality schedule of the USSR population, with all the desire, it is impossible to find traces of “cruel” repressions and not because they were not, but because their scale is exaggerated. What is the purpose of this exaggeration and forcing? The goal is to vaccinate the Russians with a complex of guilt by the type of German guilt complex after the defeat in the Second World War. The complex “pay and repent.” But after all, the great ancient Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius, who lived 500 years before our era, even then said: ” Beware of those who want to impose guilt on you. Because they are hungry for power over you . ”
Do we need this? Judge for yourself. When the first time Khrushchev stunned all the so-called. The truth about the Stalinist repression, then the authority of the USSR in the world immediately collapsed to the delight of enemies. There was a split in the world communist movement. We quarreled with the great China, A TEN MILLION PEOPLE IN THE WORLD WERE OUT OF COMMUNIST PARTIES. Eurocommunism emerged, denying not only Stalinism, but also, what is terrible, the Stalinist economy. The myth of the 20th Congress created distorted ideas about Stalin and his time, deceived and psychologically disarmed millions of people when the question of the destiny of the country was being decided. When the second time Gorbachev did it, not only the socialist bloc collapsed, but our Motherland-the USSR-fell apart.
Now Putin’s team is already doing this for the third time: again he speaks only of repressions and other “crimes” of the Stalin regime. What this leads to, clearly visible in the dialogue “Zyuganov-Makarov.” They are told about the development, the new industrialization, and they begin to immediately translate the arrows into repression. That is, immediately break off the constructive dialogue, turning it into a swara, Civil war of meanings and ideas.
Conclusion N2. Why do they need it? To prevent the restoration of a strong and great Russia. It is more convenient for them to rule a weak and fragmented country, where people will tear each other’s hair at the mention of the name of Stalin or Lenin. So it is more convenient for them to rob and deceive us. The policy of “divide and conquer” is as old as the world. Moreover, they can always dump Russia from where their stolen capitals are stored and live children, wives and mistresses.
Conclusion N3. And why is it necessary for the patriots of Russia? Yes, just another country we have and our children do not. Think about it first, before you begin to curse for repression and so on our history. After all, we have no place to fall and retreat. As our ancestor-victors said in similar cases: behind Moscow and beyond the Volga there is no land for us!
Only after the return of socialism to Russia, taking into account all the advantages and disadvantages of the USSR, one must be vigilant and remember the Stalinist warning that, as the socialist state is being built, the class struggle is exacerbated, that is, there is a threat of rebirth. So it happened, and certain segments of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Central Committee of the Komsomol and the KGB were among the first to degenerate. The Stalinist party inquisition failed to work.