Information operations

Chinese: Network Warfare


I haven’t read this in detail, yet. So far it appears elementary but not bad.

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(Translation from Chinese by my Chrome browser)

Unknown author

Network warfare , also known as information warfare is interference, sabotage enemy network information system, and ensure the normal operation of one’s own network of information systems and networks to take a series of offensive and defensive operations. Also known as high-tech war is becoming an increasingly important combat style, destroy the enemy’s command and control, intelligence and air defense and other military network systems, and even quietly destroyed, paralyzed, control of the enemy’s business, government, etc. civilian network system , the enemy without fighting the soldiers.
March 2014, South Korean Defense Ministry announced that it is high-profile cyber warfare against North Korea, they had a successful attack Iran’s nuclear facilities ” Stuxnet ” (Stuxnet) modeled, is developing a similar network virus aimed at North Korea cause physical destruction of nuclear facilities, and that the virus attacks only the second phase of South Korea against North Korea’s large network war, the first stage of the campaign, that the DPRK network propaganda war , as early as 2010 had begun. [1]
Chinese name
Network warfare
Foreign language name
Network warfare

Introduction

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Network warfare is becoming an increasingly important mode of combat in high-tech warfare, which can destroy the enemy’s command and control, intelligence information and air defense and other military network systems, and can even quietly destroy, paralyze and control the enemy’s Business, government and other civil network system, without fighting the enemy soldiers.
US military believes that the network war is to interfere with and destroy the enemy network information system, and to ensure the normal operation of one’s own network information system to take a series of network offensive and defensive actions. Network warfare is divided into two categories: one is the strategic network warfare; the other is the battlefield network warfare.
Strategic network warfare has two kinds of normal and wartime. Usually the strategic network warfare is a situation where the two sides do not have the firepower to destroy and destroy the war situation, one party to the other financial network information system, traffic network information system, power network information system and other civil network information facilities and strategic level military network information system , computer viruses, logic bombs , and other means to implement hacker attacks. The wartime strategic cyberwar is an attack on one side’s strategic-level military and civilian cyber information systems in the other.

purpose

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Network warfareNetwork warfare

Battlefield network war aims to attack, destroy, interfere with the enemy battlefield information network system and protect one’s own information network system, its main methods are: the use of enemy acceptance path and a variety of “back door”, the virus into the target computer system; Wireless remote control and other means to activate it; the use of various management and technical means, strict protection of one’s own information network system. Of course, the battlefield network warfare means of war can also be used for strategic cyber warfare.

As early as 1991 the Gulf War, the US military on the implementation of a network war in Iraq. Before the war, the CIA sent agents to Iraq, its printer chips purchased from the French air defense system put on the chip containing computer viruses. Before the strategic air raid, but also with a remote control means to activate the virus, resulting in Iraq air defense command center main computer system program disorder, air defense C3I system failure. During the war in Kosovo in 1999, the scale and effectiveness of cyberwarfare increased. Yugoslavia used a variety of computer viruses, organized “hackers” to implement network attacks, some NATO military sites were spam blocking, NATO’s some computer network system was paralyzed. NATO on the one hand to strengthen network protection measures, on the other hand the implementation of network counterattack, a large number of viruses and deceptive information into the Army computer network system, resulting in paralysis of the Southern air defense system.

background

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Network warfareNetwork warfare

US President Barack Obama announced a network security assessment report, that the threat from cyberspace has become one of the most serious economic and military threat facing the United States. The United States must show the world that it is grappling with this challenge.

The US Department of Defense is taking steps to strengthen the US military’s ability to prepare for cyber warfare, including the creation of a cyber warfare command that integrates cyber warfare command structures scattered throughout the United States, initially as part of the US Strategic Command Sub-command, but ultimately may be fully independent operation. The establishment of this command is actually recognized that the United States already has more and more network warfare weapons.

Policy evolution

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From “protection” to “attack”. “From the Clinton government, the United States embarked on strategic field of information security, information security raised to the level of an important part of US national security, when network security to protect the main theme of the Bush era the one hand, the Clinton administration inherited a network Protection features, while strengthening the network anti – terrorism theme, reflecting the combination of offensive and defensive, such as the establishment of the US military space network command.
Obama took office in the months after the two steps taken: the first step, including the F22 fighters, including the reduction of traditional weapons; the second step, to build network command, a substantial increase in network attack weapons investment. This series of practices embodies an idea is to gradually shift from the physical battlefield network, to achieve from the ‘physical elimination’ to ‘paralysis of the entity’ goal transformation. The United States was the first country in the world to introduce the concept of cyber warfare and was the first to apply it to war. For now, the Obama administration’s cybersecurity strategy has shown a ‘attack-based, network deterrence’ theme.

Scientific classification

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Network warfare is divided into two categories: one is the strategic network warfare; the other is the battlefield network warfare.

Strategic cyberwar

Strategic network warfare has two kinds of normal and wartime.
Usually the strategic network warfare is a situation where the two sides do not have the firepower to destroy and destroy the war situation, one party to the other financial network information system, traffic network information system, power network information system and other civil network information facilities and strategic level military network information system , computer viruses, logic bombs , and other means to implement hacker attacks.
The wartime strategic cyberwarfare is an attack on one side’s strategic-level military and civilian network information systems at the other, in a state of war. This strategic cyber warfare is not part of the war or war, people’s understanding is not the same. The Russian side believes that this is war. The United States, Europe, many scholars said, it depends on the scale and extent of network warfare. Sporadic, small-scale, light-weight computer network attacks are not war, organized, large-scale, devastating cyberattacks can be seen as wars; in the context of a war of fire destruction, The strategic cyberwarfare is part of the war.

Battlefield network warfare

Battlefield network war aims to attack, destroy, interfere with the enemy battlefield information network system and protect one’s own information network system, the main way: the use of enemy acceptance path and a variety of “back door”, the virus into the target computer system.
Battlefield network warfare is also divided into two broad and narrow sense.

Narrow battlefield network warfare

Narrow battlefield network warfare is to attack, destroy, interfere with enemy battlefield information network and protection of one’s own information network operations, the main way or way: the use of enemy acceptance path and a variety of “back door”, the virus into the target computer System; allow hackers to use the computer to open the structure of the defects and the calculation of operating procedures in the loopholes, the use of specialized deciphering software, in the system decipher the super user password; the virus implanted computer chip, the need to use wireless remote control and other means to activate ; Using a variety of management and technical means to protect their own information network systems.

Broad Battlefield Network Warfare

Generalized battle network warfare similar to the US military in 1998 proposed the “network-centric warfare”, it refers to the military’s all reconnaissance detection systems, communication systems, command and control systems and a variety of weapons and equipment to form a computer-centric network system , All levels of troops and personnel to use the network system to understand the battlefield situation, the exchange of operational information, command and implementation of combat operations of the combat style. Through the battlefield of the combat unit network, information superiority can be operational advantages, so that the scattered configuration of the troops together perceived battlefield situation, so as to coordinate action, play the greatest operational effectiveness. Generalized battlefield network warfare emphasizes the following basic points: combat operations will be mainly around the computer network, the network is the real-time flow of information channels; information is both combat effectiveness and combat multiplier; combat unit network can produce efficient active collaboration, So that commanders in more ways to command operations, enhance combat flexibility and adaptability.

Mode of action

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In the network war, “the virus” and the like after the release of combat weapons, will be unable to control, can completely destroy the enemy to launch and maintain the strategic resources of the war, the enemy can crush the fighting spirit and will; network warfare victory is not a lot of life The cost of war with collateral damage. Therefore, the US military in the development of network defense capabilities at the same time, pay more attention to network offensive capability.
First, the network theft war. That is, to find each other network vulnerabilities, crack file password, steal confidential information.
Second, the network of public opinion war. Through the media network, fabricate lies, create panic and split, undermine the morale of the other people.
Third, the network destroy the war. That is, the use of various “soft” and “hard” network attack weapons, the saturation attack, destroy the other government, military information network.

Technical reserve

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Microsoft announced the closure of Cuba and other five countries MSN service event, has led to strong industry closed. Microsoft announced on its website, the company’s compliance with the US government ban, cutting off Cuba, Iran, Syria , Sudan and North Korea five countries MSN instant messaging service, citizens of five countries found that they could not log in MSN served . Industry experts believe that this can be seen as the United States officially began following the military sanctions, economic sanctions, trade sanctions after a new international sanctions – the information sanctions.
Information sanctions are different from previous physical sanctions. While traditional physical sanctions have created considerable difficulties for the target State, they have not resulted in catastrophic and devastating results. Replacement of the product to ease the severity of the sanctions, the absence of high-end products, the total can be followed by low-end products to fill the loopholes. On this basis, the embargo on traditional goods has not had a significant impact on the State.
The United States government holds the core technology of the information field, the operating system, the database, the core technology of the network switch is basically in the hands of American enterprises. Microsoft’s operating system, Cisco switch software, and even embedded in the CIA printer software, the back door software is no secret that the United States in the information technology research and development of information products and the manufacturing process in advance on the future of global information for the preparation of sanctions . In modern society, information dependence is getting higher and higher. In addition to information related to a country’s political and economic aspects, but also directly affect the daily life of ordinary people, the people’s psychological and volition will be significant.

Attack capability

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“New York Times” mentioned in the United States will set up UNC network is an important step in this strategy. After the establishment of the headquarters, the network army will serve as an independent arms, direct command by the Ministry of Defense. In early 2008, Bush had given the Department of Defense greater cyberwarfare, allowing the US military to launch a cyberattack. Requiring the US military to have access to any long-distance public or closed computer network capacity, and then lurking there, to maintain “completely concealed” and “quietly steal information.” Eventually: 5D Purpose: Deceive, reject, disintegrate, demote, destroy each other’s systems.
The US control of the Internet has far exceeded the imagination of ordinary people, once the network war broke out, the US government will always be able to call powerful to terrible power of IT giants. Therefore, the United States is to induce other countries to carry out arms race, once the network to join the arms race, the United States will be able to “have been long to attack the other short”, the other side down.
US Secretary of Defense Gates June 23, 2009 formally ordered the formation of network command, network warfare command will become with the Air Force Combat Command, Space Command level units, led by a four-star general. According to the US military hacker project tracking 13 years of defense expert Joel Harding’s assessment, the US military a total of 3000-5000 information warfare experts, 5-7 million soldiers involved in network warfare. If you add the original electronic warfare personnel, the number of US military forces should be in the 88700 or so. According to the US defense contractor estimates, US military investment in the cost of an annual war over 10 billion US dollars. The United States has developed more than 2,000 kinds of computer virus weapons, coupled with well-trained network warfare offensive forces, as long as the United States needs, at any time to initiate information network attacks, invade other countries network , To destroy, paralyze and even control.

Classic Case

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French military computer was black

January 2009, the French navy internal computer system by a virus invasion, the rapid spread to the entire network, was unable to start, the Navy all the fighters because they can not “download the flight instruction” and grounded two days. Just the French Navy’s internal computer system clock shut down, France’s national security on the emergence of a huge ‘black hole’. Imagine, if a country is a system or domain computer network system problems or paralysis, this loss and harm will be unthinkable.

Yugoslavia Attacks NATO

In the 1999 Kosovo war , the network scale and the effects of war is increasing. FRY using a variety of computer virus and organization “hackers” the implementation of network attacks, NATO troops some sites are blocked spam, some of the computer network system once paralyzed. NATO on the one hand to strengthen network protection measures, on the other hand the implementation of network counterattack, a large number of viruses and deceptive information to the Army computer network and communication systems. From the high-tech war to the information-based war transition process, the scale and intensity of the network war will become increasingly large, increasing role.

Russia-Georgia conflict

Russia’s world-famous hackers, in August 2008 the Russian-Georgian conflict , the Russian network can be said to create a classic case of war. Prior to the military operation, Russia controlled Georgia’s network and paralyzed Georgia’s transportation, communications, media and financial Internet services, opening the way for a smooth military operation. Despite the strength of Russia’s cyber warfare, Russia’s cyber warfare has not been put to the test because of its core technology in the hands of Americans. This is one reason why Russia is actively advocating an international treaty on cyberwarfare.

Korea financial network paralysis

South Korea, March 20, 2013, an anonymous South Korean government civil servants in Seoul to the Aurora revealed that South Korea’s three television media and two banks of the computer network suffered a large-scale network attacks, resulting in a temporary interruption of network services.
A staff at Shinhan Bank told Aurora that at about 2:00 pm local time, her work computer suddenly went blank, followed by a skeletal mark on the screen. Shinhan Bank is South Korea’s fourth-largest financial institution, the bank’s ATM, counter services and business services interrupted for nearly 10 hours. [2]

System risk

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Since the birth of the Internet domain names and addresses will be regulatory control by the United States. In September 1998, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was established, although ICANN professed to be a non-profit private company, was authorized by the US Department of Commerce for ICANN domain name and Internet-related technology, international management, “This means that The US Department of Commerce reserves the right to deny ICANN its authority at any time. “At the same time, the United States holds the Internet’s aorta. Not only countries and regions of the communications trunk line to go through the US trunk line, the United States also holds the global Internet 13 root servers in the domain name 10, as long as the root server to shield the national domain name, you can make a country on the network instant “disappear”.

Applicable law

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International humanitarian law can only be applied when a network operation takes place in the context of and is associated with armed conflict. Thus, when cyber operations occur in the course of an ongoing armed conflict (for example, not only bombing and missile attacks by one party to the other but also cyber attacks against the enemy’s computer system), international humanitarian law applicable to the conflict The same rules apply to network operations, which is no doubt. [3]
However, in cases where hostilities are only computer network attacks, it is difficult to define their nature if such acts are isolated acts. For example, a “shock net” virus, which appears to be targeting Iran’s uranium enrichment facility in Natanz, is still an isolated computer network attack (although the attack lasted for some time), which could be Initiated by one or more States against the Islamic Republic of Iran. Although States did not address whether the attack was an armed conflict, the view was expressed that if the attack was launched by the State, it constituted an international armed conflict.
Can computer network attacks constitute an international armed conflict without the use of force in any other form? The answer to this question depends on whether the cyberattack of the computer (1) is attributable to the state, and (2) whether it constitutes the use of force.

Significance

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The world has not happened in a real sense of a close sense of the comprehensive network warfare. The past, network warfare, always one-sided asymmetric war. Network warfare has a very significant effect: the network has become to enhance the military combat capability of the “multiplier”, as the system of sea power, air power, the right to control system has gradually evolved into an important part of the US military to maintain military superiority.
In the Internet age, the Internet and multimedia technology has shown rapid growth. The associated business can be called explosive development, and penetrated deeply into the family and culture, which is much faster than the two industrial revolutions. The Internet provides a new space for people to break through the traditional geographical boundaries, and people in this space gradually formed a new way of life, social norms and ideology, and create new cyberspace and culture.
With the gradual infiltration of computer networks into all areas of human society, more and more institutions have to re-layout to keep pace with the development of technology, the country’s entire civil and military infrastructure are More and more dependent on the network, the network has become a state of the normal functioning of the ‘nervous system’. Once a loophole, the people’s livelihood and many important systems will be paralyzed state, national security is also precarious.
References
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